Python Data Science Handbook

Developer Reference Guide.

Jake VanderPlas «Python Data Science Handbook» O’Reilly Media, 2017 year, pages 548, En (19,8 mb. pdf + 7,61 mb. epub)

This is by far the best book in this issue to get you started with Python for data science. You will need some basic knowledge of Python and machine learning to understand the concepts, but this book will definitely have you skill to reach the next level. It’s not nonsense, book and goes deep into things that are relevant and important, not data science in Python, each page-rich in information and has a practical use above and adds a new dimension to Your understanding to look at this book as a reference guide and not a full-blown «how to» with Python and data science. The author also offers some useful links at the end of each Chapter, which will be very useful to delve into topics that are beyond the scope of this book. There are lots of high quality relevant and useful examples.

ISBN-10: 1491912057
ISBN-13: 978-1491912058

Table of contents

For many scientists, Python is a tool, mainly due to its library for storage, processing and analysis of data. There are several resources available for the individual components of the stack in data science, but only with a Python background science, all wrapped shell shell ipython, numpy, pandas, matplotlib, the package scikit-learn package and other related tools.

The work of data scientists and accountants who are familiar with reading and writing Python code, you’ll find in this comprehensive Desk reference is ideal for solving everyday issues: manipulating, transforming, and cleaning data; visualization of different data types; and using data to build statistical and machine learning models. Simply put, this should have references to scientific computing in Python.

With this handbook, you’ll learn how to use:

  • IPython and Jupyter: provide computational environments for data scientists using Python
  • NumPy: includes the ndarray for efficient storage and manipulation of dense data arrays in Python
  • Pandas: features the DataFrame for efficient storage and manipulation of labeled/columnar data in Python
  • Matplotlib: includes capabilities for a flexible range of data visualizations in Python
  • Scikit-Learn: for efficient and clean Python implementations of the most important and established machine learning algorithms

1. IPython: Beyond Normal Python
Shell or Notebook? 2
Launching the IPython Shell 2
Launching the Jupyter Notebook 2
Help and Documentation in IPython 3
Accessing Documentation with ? 3
Accessing Source Code with ?? 5
Exploring Modules with Tab Completion 6
Keyboard Shortcuts in the IPython Shell 8
Navigation Shortcuts 8
Text Entry Shortcuts 9
Command History Shortcuts 9
Miscellaneous Shortcuts 10
IPython Magic Commands 10
Pasting Code Blocks: %paste and %cpaste 11
Running External Code: %run 12
Timing Code Execution: %timeit 12
Help on Magic Functions: ?, %magic, and %lsmagic 13
Input and Output History 13
IPython’s In and Out Objects 13
Underscore Shortcuts and Previous Outputs 15
Suppressing Output 15
Related Magic Commands 16
IPython and Shell Commands 16
Quick Introduction to the Shell 16
Shell Commands in IPython 18

2. Introduction to NumPy
Understanding Data Types in Python 34
A Python Integer Is More Than Just an Integer 35
A Python List Is More Than Just a List 37
Fixed-Type Arrays in Python 38
Creating Arrays from Python Lists 39
Creating Arrays from Scratch 39
NumPy Standard Data Types 41
The Basics of NumPy Arrays 42
NumPy Array Attributes 42
Array Indexing: Accessing Single Elements 43
Array Slicing: Accessing Subarrays 44
Reshaping of Arrays 47
Array Concatenation and Splitting 48
Computation on NumPy Arrays: Universal Functions 50
The Slowness of Loops 50
Introducing UFuncs 51
Exploring NumPy’s UFuncs 52
Advanced Ufunc Features 56
Ufuncs: Learning More 58
Aggregations: Min, Max, and Everything in Between 58
Summing the Values in an Array 59
Minimum and Maximum 59
Example: What Is the Average Height of US Presidents? 61
Computation on Arrays: Broadcasting 63
Introducing Broadcasting 63
Rules of Broadcasting 65
Broadcasting in Practice 68
Comparisons, Masks, and Boolean Logic 70
Example: Counting Rainy Days 70
Comparison Operators as ufuncs 71
Working with Boolean Arrays 73
Boolean Arrays as Masks 75
Fancy Indexing 78
Exploring Fancy Indexing 79
Combined Indexing 80
Example: Selecting Random Points 81
Modifying Values with Fancy Indexing 82
Example: Binning Data 83
Sorting Arrays 85
Fast Sorting in NumPy: np.sort and np.argsort 86
Partial Sorts: Partitioning 88
Example: k-Nearest Neighbors 88
Structured Data: NumPy’s Structured Arrays 92
Creating Structured Arrays 94
More Advanced Compound Types 95
RecordArrays: Structured Arrays with a Twist 96
On to Pandas 96

3. Data Manipulation with Pandas
Installing and Using Pandas 97
Introducing Pandas Objects 98
The Pandas Series Object 99
The Pandas DataFrame Object 102
The Pandas Index Object 105
Data Indexing and Selection 107
Data Selection in Series 107
Data Selection in DataFrame 110
Operating on Data in Pandas 115
Ufuncs: Index Preservation 115
UFuncs: Index Alignment 116
Ufuncs: Operations Between DataFrame and Series 118
Handling Missing Data 119
Trade-Offs in Missing Data Conventions 120
Missing Data in Pandas 120
Operating on Null Values 124
Hierarchical Indexing 128
A Multiply Indexed Series 128
Methods of MultiIndex Creation 131
Indexing and Slicing a MultiIndex 134
Rearranging Multi-Indices 137
Data Aggregations on Multi-Indices 140
Combining Datasets: Concat and Append 141
Recall: Concatenation of NumPy Arrays 142
Simple Concatenation with pd.concat 142
Combining Datasets: Merge and Join 146
Relational Algebra 146
Categories of Joins 147
Specification of the Merge Key 149
Specifying Set Arithmetic for Joins 152
Overlapping Column Names: The suffixes Keyword 153
Example: US States Data 154
Aggregation and Grouping 158
Planets Data 159
Simple Aggregation in Pandas 159
GroupBy: Split, Apply, Combine 161
Pivot Tables 170
Motivating Pivot Tables 170
Pivot Tables by Hand 171
Pivot Table Syntax 171
Example: Birthrate Data 174
Vectorized String Operations 178
Introducing Pandas String Operations 178
Tables of Pandas String Methods 180
Example: Recipe Database 184
Working with Time Series 188
Dates and Times in Python 188
Pandas Time Series: Indexing by Time 192
Pandas Time Series Data Structures 192
Frequencies and Offsets 195
Resampling, Shifting, and Windowing 196
Where to Learn More 202
Example: Visualizing Seattle Bicycle Counts 202
High-Performance Pandas: eval() and query() 208
Motivating query() and eval(): Compound Expressions 209
pandas.eval() for Efficient Operations 210
DataFrame.eval() for Column-Wise Operations 211
DataFrame.query() Method 213
Performance: When to Use These Functions 214
Further Resources 215

4. Visualization with Matplotlib
General Matplotlib Tips 218
Importing matplotlib 218
Setting Styles 218
show() or No show()? How to Display Your Plots 218
Saving Figures to File 221
Two Interfaces for the Price of One 222
Simple Line Plots 224
Adjusting the Plot: Line Colors and Styles 226
Adjusting the Plot: Axes Limits 228
Labeling Plots 230
Simple Scatter Plots 233
Scatter Plots with plt.plot 233
Scatter Plots with plt.scatter 235
plot Versus scatter: A Note on Efficiency 237
Visualizing Errors 237
Basic Errorbars 238
Continuous Errors 239
Density and Contour Plots 241
Visualizing a Three-Dimensional Function 241
Histograms, Binnings, and Density 245
Two-Dimensional Histograms and Binnings 247
Customizing Plot Legends 249
Choosing Elements for the Legend 251
Legend for Size of Points 252
Multiple Legends 254
Customizing Colorbars 255
Customizing Colorbars 256
Example: Handwritten Digits 261
Multiple Subplots 262
plt.axes: Subplots by Hand 263
plt.subplot: Simple Grids of Subplots 264
plt.subplots: The Whole Grid in One Go 265
plt.GridSpec: More Complicated Arrangements 266
Text and Annotation 268
Example: Effect of Holidays on US Births 269
Transforms and Text Position 270
Arrows and Annotation 272
Customizing Ticks 275
Major and Minor Ticks 276
Hiding Ticks or Labels 277
Reducing or Increasing the Number of Ticks 278
Fancy Tick Formats 279
Summary of Formatters and Locators 281
Customizing Matplotlib: Configurations and Stylesheets 282
Plot Customization by Hand 282
Changing the Defaults: rcParams 284
Stylesheets 285
Three-Dimensional Plotting in Matplotlib 290
Three-Dimensional Points and Lines 291
Three-Dimensional Contour Plots 292
Wireframes and Surface Plots 293
Surface Triangulations 295
Geographic Data with Basemap 298
Map Projections 300
Drawing a Map Background 304
Plotting Data on Maps 307
Example: California Cities 308
Example: Surface Temperature Data 309
Visualization with Seaborn 311
Seaborn Versus Matplotlib 312
Exploring Seaborn Plots 313
Example: Exploring Marathon Finishing Times 322
Further Resources 329
Matplotlib Resources 329
Other Python Graphics Libraries 330

5. Machine Learning
What Is Machine Learning? 332
Categories of Machine Learning 332
Qualitative Examples of Machine Learning Applications 333
Summary 342
Introducing Scikit-Learn 343
Data Representation in Scikit-Learn 343
Scikit-Learn’s Estimator API 346
Application: Exploring Handwritten Digits 354
Summary 359
Hyperparameters and Model Validation 359
Thinking About Model Validation 359
Selecting the Best Model 363
Learning Curves 370
Validation in Practice: Grid Search 373
Summary 375
Feature Engineering 375
Categorical Features 376
Text Features 377
Image Features 378
Derived Features 378
Imputation of Missing Data 381
Feature Pipelines 381
In Depth: Naive Bayes Classification 382
Bayesian Classification 383
Gaussian Naive Bayes 383
Multinomial Naive Bayes 386
When to Use Naive Bayes 389
In Depth: Linear Regression 390
Simple Linear Regression 390
Basis Function Regression 392
Regularization 396
Example: Predicting Bicycle Traffic 400
In-Depth: Support Vector Machines 405
Motivating Support Vector Machines 405
Support Vector Machines: Maximizing the Margin 407
Example: Face Recognition 416
Support Vector Machine Summary 420
In-Depth: Decision Trees and Random Forests 421
Motivating Random Forests: Decision Trees 421
Ensembles of Estimators: Random Forests 426
Random Forest Regression 428
Example: Random Forest for Classifying Digits 430
Summary of Random Forests 432
In Depth: Principal Component Analysis 433
Introducing Principal Component Analysis 433
PCA as Noise Filtering 440
Example: Eigenfaces 442
Principal Component Analysis Summary 445
In-Depth: Manifold Learning 445
Manifold Learning: “HELLO” 446
Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) 447
MDS as Manifold Learning 450
Nonlinear Embeddings: Where MDS Fails 452
Nonlinear Manifolds: Locally Linear Embedding 453
Some Thoughts on Manifold Methods 455
Example: Isomap on Faces 456
Example: Visualizing Structure in Digits 460
In Depth: k-Means Clustering 462
Introducing k-Means 463
k-Means Algorithm: Expectation–Maximization 465
Examples 470
In Depth: Gaussian Mixture Models 476
Motivating GMM: Weaknesses of k-Means 477
Generalizing E–M: Gaussian Mixture Models 480
GMM as Density Estimation 484
Example: GMM for Generating New Data 488
In-Depth: Kernel Density Estimation 491
Motivating KDE: Histograms 491
Kernel Density Estimation in Practice 496
Example: KDE on a Sphere 498
Example: Not-So-Naive Bayes 501
Application: A Face Detection Pipeline 506
HOG Features 506
HOG in Action: A Simple Face Detector 507
Caveats and Improvements 512
Further Machine Learning Resources 514
Machine Learning in Python 514
General Machine Learning 515
Index 517

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